|The Export Quantitative Restrictions on Natural Resources: The Policy Concerns and the Justifications|
|Export Quantitative Restrictions, The Scope of GATT XI:1,
General Exceptions, Essential Product, Exhaustible Natural
Resources, Necessity Test
|In the past, the trade barriers to the exports were not common in practice.
However, the raw materials can not always meet the global demands as a result of
climate change or the increasing demands from the newly industrialized countries.
The shortage of raw materials leads to the increase of export restrictions. Besides
trade concerns, there are different policy concerns for export restrictions, such as
food securities or preservation of natural resources, based on which the restrictions
could be justified. The export restrictions on natural resources could be justified by
Articles XI: 2(a) or XX(g) of GATT. The applications of these provisions would be
reviewed and the focus would be the balance between the protection for free trade
and other policy needs of the members.